Stratospheric sulfate aerosols (geoengineering)(0)
The ability of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to create a global dimming effect has made them a possible candidate for use in geoengineering projects to limit the effect and impact of climate change due to rising levels of greenhouse gases. Delivery of precursor sulfide gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by artillery, aircraft and balloons has been proposed.
Tom Wigley calculated the impact of injecting sulfate particles, or aerosols, every one to four years into the stratosphere in amounts equal to those lofted by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991, but did not address the many technical and political challenges involved in potential geoengineering efforts. If found to be economically, environmentally and technologically viable, such injections could provide a “grace period” of up to 20 years before major cutbacks in greenhouse gas emissions would be required, he concludes.
Direct delivery of precursors is proposed by Paul Crutzen. This would typically be achieved using sulfide gases such as dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbonyl sulfide, or hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These compounds would be delivered using artillery, aircraft (such as the high-flying F15C) or balloons, and result in the formation of compounds with the sulfate anion SO42-.
According to estimates by the Council on Foreign Relations, “one kilogram of well placed sulfur in the stratosphere would roughly offset the warming effect of several hundred thousand kilograms of carbon dioxide.”
Primary aerosol formation, also known as homogeneous aerosol formation results when gaseous SO2 combines with water to form aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This acidic liquid solution is in the form of a vapor and condenses onto particles of solid matter, either meteoritic in origin or from dust carried from the surface to the stratosphere. Secondary or heterogeneous aerosol formation occurs when H2SO4 vapor condenses onto existing aerosol particles. Existing aerosol particles or droplets also run into each other, creating larger particles or droplets in a process known as coagulation. The larger the particles or droplets, the shorter their residence time in the stratosphere and the less effective they are at scattering visible sunlight.
Arguments for the technique
The arguments in favor of this approach are:
* Natural process — Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are created by existing atmospheric processes (especially volcanoes), the behaviour of which has been studied observationally. Other, more speculative geoengineering schemes, do not have natural analogs (e.g. space sunshade).
All geoengineering schemes have potential efficacy problems, due to the difficulty of modelling their impact and the inherently complex nature of the global climate system. Nevertheless, certain efficacy issues are specific to the use of this particular technique.
* Lifespan of aerosols — Tropospheric sulfur aerosols are short lived. Delivery of particles into the lower stratosphere will typically ensure that they remain aloft only for a few weeks or months. To ensure endurance, high-level delivery is needed, ensuring a typical endurance of several years. Further, sizing of particles is crucial to their endurance.
* Aerosol delivery — Even discounting the challenges of lifting, there are still significant challenges in designing a delivery system that is capable of delivering the precursor gases in the right manner to encourage effective aerosol formation. For example, it is unclear whether aerial shells should be designed to leak slowly or burst suddenly. The size of aerosol particles is also crucial, and efforts must be made to ensure optimal delivery.
* Distribution — It is logistically difficult to deliver aerosols evenly around the globe. Challenges therefore exist in creating a network of delivery points sufficient to allow viable geoengineering from a limited number of launching sites.
Geoengineering in general is a controversial technique, and carries problems and risks, such as weaponisation. However, certain problems are specific to, or more pronounced with this particular technique.
* Drought, particularly monsoon failure in Asia and Africa is a major risk.
Further, the delivery methods may cause significant problems, notably climate change and possible ozone depletion in the case of aircraft, and litter in the case of untethered balloons.
Various techniques have been proposed for delivering the aerosol precursor gases (H2S and SO2). The required altitude to enter the stratosphere is the height of the tropopause, which varies from 11 km (6.8 miles/36,080 feet) at the poles to 17 km (11 miles/58,080 feet) at the equator.
* Aircraft such as the F15-C variant of the F-15 Eagle have the necessary flight ceiling, but limited payload. Military tanker aircraft such as the KC-135 Stratotanker and KC-10 Extender also have the necessary ceiling and have greater payload.
Straight from the Horses Ass.
Obama Administration Repsonse to Gulf Oil Spill Late(0)
The oil that is still leaking from the well can seriously damage the economy and the environment of our Gulf States, and it could extend for a long time. It could jeopardize the livelihoods of thousands of Americans who call this place home. That is why the federal government has launched an all-hands-on-deck, relentless response to this crisis from day one. President Barack Obama May 2, 2010
Yesterday, President Obama tried to sugarcoat his administration’s inadequate and tardy response to the worst oil spill in our nation’s history. His claim that the administration has been “all-hands-on-deck…from day one” is laughable. The Deepwater Horizon well exploded on April 20, but the President did not make his first remarks on the incident until nine days later and finally visited the region May 2, twelve days after the incident. In fact, the Coast Guard Commander for the region initially stated that the incident would not result in a major oil spill.
Prior to addressing the Gulf disaster, the President found time to blast Wall Street and the Governor of Arizona, advocate Earth Day awareness, meet with Rev. Billy Graham, pitch racial politics in his weekly radio address, prepare his jokes for the White House Correspondents’ Dinner, make a racially divisive video to activate his political coalition for the 2010 election and hold an impromptu news conference on a range of topics. In this news conference, the President discussed everything from the Supreme Court to immigration, but did not mention the disaster in the Gulf.
It was not until April 29 that President Obama deemed the massive explosion right off the coast of Louisiana to be worthy of comment. It was at that point that his administration finally realized that they had underestimated the severity of the explosion. Only then did the administration move into a frenzied state of “action” trying to cover-up their initial mistakes, their inaction and utter ineptitude.
Commercial fishermen in Louisiana could have been utilized from the early hours of this crisis to deploy boom and protect delicate marshland. Sadly, there was an unacceptable delay and even now, not enough fishermen are being used and many continue to wait for a call to action that has not come. In addition, the controlled burn of the oil was not started until four hours after the second leak was discovered.
Five years ago, government officials at all levels failed the citizens of the state. This time, there are similar failures from government officials who waited much too long to take action. Dealing with an emergency effectively requires decisive leadership. On that important test, President Obama failed miserably. Of course, the liberal mainstream news media has given the President a pass. If a Republican President had neglected such a crisis for so long, there would be a media firestorm.
During his visit yesterday, the President once again pinned the blame on British Petroleum (BP), the operator of the well. Yet, this blame game does nothing to help Louisiana deal with another Katrina-like threat. Of course, BP will have to pay for the damages and is ultimately responsible, but when the Gulf Coast is threatened by a massive oil spill, it becomes the responsibility of the President of the United States as well. Our federal government has many more resources than BP and those resources should have been deployed from the first day, not ten days after the explosion
The President’s six hour visit does not offer much satisfaction to our fishing industry which has been shutdown by this incident. Approximately 30 percent of the seafood consumed in this nation comes through the wetlands of Louisiana, so this disaster will impact millions of Americans.
Today, the estimates are that the well is leaking 5,000 barrels per day, but the President’s point person for the disaster Commander Admiral Thad Allen noted that the leak could increase 2,000 percent to an unimaginable level of 100,000 barrels per day. The environmental consequences of such a monumental mountain of oil are too scary to contemplate.
The massive oil spill threatens the economy and environment of this region. It will lead to billions of dollars in damages. Sadly, it did not capture the attention of the President until nine catastrophic days had elapsed. If this disaster had occurred off the coast of New York or California or any blue state, there is little doubt that President Obama would have been more proactive.
This massive explosion should have been priority number one for this administration from April 20 onward, but, unfortunately, politics and other trivial pursuits, occupied the time of the President until a wake-up call on April 29. In the nine days that elapsed, precious time was lost and a containment problem became a clean-up nightmare.
Obama’s response to the oil explosion was so tardy that he actually accomplished the impossible. He made Bush’s response to Hurricane Katrina seem downright timely.
Illuminati Symbolism In Movies(0)
Chemtrail Overdose 2010- Massive Chemtrails 2010(0)
Chemtrail Overdose 2010- Massive Chemtrails 2010
Best Chemtrail Evidence | Chemtrails Videos(0)
Chemtrails – Best Evidence Part 1 of 5
This website DOES NOT track the movements of citizen based geo-engineering projects, like living roofs, tree planting etc. Our focus is the industrial scaled programs both private and government born, that have the potential AND LIKELIHOOD TO DEVASTATE OUR PLANET. Current Geo-Engineering News (and related)is in the left blue column. Aging news posts then go to the articles page. Older news (up to 20 years)and some scientific reserach is here
Whether you believe in global warming, OR NOT, geoengineering is a threat to you. If you don’t think big brother is going to artificially and chemically modify the planet, just read the mainstream news releases on the left, in the blue column.
VOLUMES OF DATA, LAB TESTS AND VIDEO FOOTAGE, FROM ALL OVER THE GLOBE, MAKE CLEAR THE CONCLUSION THAT AEROSOL SPRAYING HAS BEEN AN ONGOING LETHAL REALITY.
Citizens have found government data to back up their claims. The most extensive recent testing is the Northen California Citizens for Clean Air efforts. To find water, air and soil tests outside of California (including international), start here. You will find our library here(founded by Rosalind Peterson), including California state and Northern California private testing. We are currently backlogged about 2 dozen Norcal tests that have to be digitized and uploaded.
Is al-Qaeda winning?(0)
What does it say about Washington’s ”war on terror” that dozen and a half people with paper cutters forced hundreds of thousands of Western troops into the battlefields of the “greater Middle East” region;
That 100,000 foreign soldiers are bogged down in occupied Afghanistan wondering how many dozens of al-Qaeda operatives have remained, if any;
That the most liberal democracy enacted new controversial illiberal laws and unpatriotic practices under its “Patriot Act”;
That one shoe-bomber has forced millions of people to take off their shoes every time they take a flight;
That one underpants-bomber will expose every other traveler in most humiliating of ways;
That after US loss of deterrence and prestige as well as trillions of dollars of military and other expenditures, al-Qaeda’s top leadership remains at large; its bases/cells proliferate globally; that volunteers continue to flock into its ranks and young supporters to its websites… !!! And above all that it continues to terrorize America and Americans.
So much that one gets the impression that America is fighting a world superpower despite the incredible disparities in capacity, numbers and support.
Is al-Qaeda winning? Has the United States lost?
Hitting the Jackpot
Its strategy was simple: Draw the US into direct confrontation against and within the Muslim world. Like sheep to the slaughter house, America walked right into its trap.
Al-Qaeda was lucky. With a ‘cowboy’ and so-called “chicken-hawks” (militarists who ever served in the military) dominating the White House and the Pentagon… military escalation was only a question of time and intensity.
It all went as smooth as a scripted movie. After the 9/11 attacks at the pillars of its world status, the Pentagon and Wall Street, the wounded superpower went on a rampage. Like a bull in a china shop, it responded with little or no thinking of the consequences of its military actions.
Warmongers took advantage of the threat to US national security to advance their military agenda in foreign policy and the radical American Right exploited what they termed as the threat to “our way of life” to transform America’s way of life towards the Right.
Washington called for a “crusade”, then changed it into a “war” on terror and under its guise, went on to occupy Afghanistan and Iraq and support Israel’s bloody wars in Lebanon andPalestine. It also intervened in Somalia, Yemen and Pakistan and put direct pressure on its allies to confront their Islamist movements.
In no time, the US was preoccupied by its draining occupation and costly military operations. And as expected, the terrible human cost only added petrol to the flames of hatred.
Paradoxically, anti-Americanism has been more rampant under “friendly regimes” like in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Turkey etc. than others.
America’s unfortunate and disproportionate use of military force to defeat a segmented, mobile and polycentric movement of several hundred core groups of fighters didn’t make it any more secure or dissuasive.
As the Obama administration asks for $33 bn extra budget above the already approved $660 bn for 2010, I remember what Richard Meyers, the former head of the US joint chiefs of staff, told me several weeks ago how a decade later, the US still doesn’t have a strategy to deal with “the global insurgency” facing America.
Needless to say, no serious strategic analyst would advise abandoning military power all together. However, Washington’s dependency on, even addiction to, firepower has neutralized or nullified all other efforts towards defusing support for al-Qaeda and truly winning hearts.
Good-will gestures provided by President Obama and his attempts to reconnect to the Arab and Islamic world on the basis of “mutual interest and mutual respect” can hardly be heard considering the echoes of drone fired missiles, speeding F-15 jets and rolling tanks.
The more Washington used its military force, the less it won the minds of those it needs most to defeat al-Qaeda: Americans, Arabs and Muslims.
Likewise, US military actions are harming its intelligence and law enforcement work that over the last decade have dealt the greatest blow to al-Qaeda’s leadership and organisation.
Zero Sum strategy
And likewise, counter terror tactics and intelligence work has made it ever more difficult for public diplomacy to “win hearts and minds”. Instead of listening to people of the region, it has been spying on them and instead of reading them their rights, it has tortured them in far-away prisons.
And instead of hearing out their concerns and fears, Washington has underlined its own above all others.
In that limited and limiting spirit, for example, mostly impoverished Yemenis that suffer from war in the north, intensive conflict in the south and three decade autocratic regime, must now worry about US fears, and cater to US interests above their own.
Which brings us back to our initial question: al- Qaeda is winning only as far as Washington is running a self-defeating war.
However, one needs to remember that in the self-defeating war on terror, winner and loser is one and the same.
As long as America puts its security preoccupations and political interests about those under its military and strategic domination, the Pentagon and al-Qaeda will feed into one another and the Americans, Arabs and Muslims will continue to be the ultimate losers.
Christmas Chemtrails 2009 Night Spraying(1)
Christmas was beautiful clear skies until the sun started to set, then out came the chemtrail jets. Now that it is night fall the jets are playing tic tac toe in the sky. When are people going to realize that something is going on in our atmosphere.
We did not manage to get any pictures of the night chemtrails as our camera seems to be having a melt down.
You can browse our other chemtrail pictures here:
November 2009 Heavy Chemtrail Day(1)
“November Chemtrails 2009″
The beginning of November kicked off with a sky filled with chemtrails. We couldn’t help but grab the camera when we witnessed the chemtrail X. After all the mysterious tick-tac-toe pattern is what first made use research “chemtrails” a little closer.
Below you will see in the picture of a chemtrail X just being laid out into the sky. There is also come older chemtrails that have already spread out and began to make the sky have the famous gray haze.
Former Finnish Provincial Medical Officer Says Vaccines Are Eugenics Weapon(0)
Former Finnish Provincial Medical Officer Says Vaccines Are Eugenics Weapon
Submitted Chentrail Pitcures from Wisconsin(0)
Lauren from Wisconsin sent in these great shots of chemtrails being sprayed over her area.
“i live in racine wisconsin and i see them flyin over the our feilds and crops always hitten em when its a little later at night
Thanks Lauren for the pictures, sorry for the delay in posting them. Had an email issue..
Anyone wanting to submit chemtral pictures, videos or other Health, Political etc. related piece, please do so here. We would be more then happy to post your story and or material on GoKill, and remember. People wont know (wake up) if we don’t show them! The Main stream Media certainly isn’t showing this, wonder why?
Finally — Chemtrails PROVEN! and TESTED! By Reporter ON NEWS(23)
ChemTrails in florida on Sun 11 2009 -tested metalic and conductive!(24)
Chemtrails – Chmury Śmierci 1 / 3(24)
U.F.O. and Chemtrails – A REAL PHENOMENON(0)
U.F.O. and Chemtrails – A REAL PHENOMENON
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